Anthropometric characteristics and 20-m sprint times among Malaysian University athletes

Fui Yen Wong
National Defence University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Asmadi Ishak
Faculty of Sports Science & Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
Bhanu Bawari
Sport Science Department, Inspire Institute of Sport, Vidyanagar, Dist. Bellary, India
Judy Easow
Sport Science Department, Inspire Institute of Sport, Vidyanagar, Dist. Bellary, India
Uma Kale
Sport Science Department, Inspire Institute of Sport, Vidyanagar, Dist. Bellary, India
Samuel Andrew Pullinger
Sport Science Department, Inspire Institute of Sport, Vidyanagar, Dist. Bellary, India

Published 30-12-2023


  • Body Composition,
  • Linear-sprint,
  • Team-sports,
  • Combat sports,
  • Running

How to Cite

Wong, F. Y., Ishak, A., Bawari, B., Easow, J., Kale, U., & Pullinger, S. A. (2023). Anthropometric characteristics and 20-m sprint times among Malaysian University athletes. International Journal of Kinanthropometry, 3(2), 96–104.



Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric characteristics of the Malaysian University level athletes and to explore potential relationships between the anthropometric measures and 20-m linear sprint performance. Method: Forty male Malaysian University level athletes associated with Malaysian Universities and regularly competing in state level competitions took part in the study. Anthropometric measurements were performed for body mass, stature, 8 skinfold sites, 3 girths, and 2 breadths. Somatotype, body fat % and sum of skinfolds were calculated. A 20-m linear sprint test was performed to assess acceleration and running speed. Results: The pairwise comparison analysis revealed that throwers had significant differences in endomorphy with athletes competing in sprinting, karate, and middle distance (p ˂ 0.05), in mesomorphy with athletes competing in long distance, middle distance, sprinters, footballers and karate (p ˂ 0.05), and in ectomorphy with athletes competing in middle distance and karate. The Pearson correlation coefficient between Body Fat Percent and Sprint Time was found to be 0.374 (p = 0.025, two-tailed), indicating a statistically significant positive correlation between the two variables. Conclusion: Physique is highly correlated with the physical characteristics and the development of the athletic functions required in each sport and is a determinant of success. Body fat percentage influences the ability of an individual to accelerate and run maximally.


  1. Abraham, G. (2010). Analysis of anthropometry, body composition and performance variables of young Indian athletes in southern region. Indian Journal of Science and technology, 3(12): 1210-1213.
  2. Akdogan, E., Kanat, E.A., Simsek, D., Cerrah, A.O., Bidil, S., Bayram, I., Aktı, Y. (2022). Relationship Between Body Composizion, Multiple Repeated Sprint Ability and Vertical Jump Performance in Elite Badminton Players. International Journal of Morphology, 40(3).
  3. Aktas, B.S. (2023). A Study on the Association between Skiers’ Body Fat Percentage and Their Jump and Sprint Performance. CBÜ Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 18(2): 669-682.
  4. Bale, P., Bradbury, D., Colley, E. (1986). Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 20(4): 170–173.
  5. Bale, P., Rowell, S., Colley, E. (1985). Anthropometric and training characteristics of female marathon runners as determinants of distance running performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 3(2): 115–126.
  6. Mansour, G.B., Kacem, A., Ishak, M., Grélot, L., Ftaiti, F. (2021) The effect of body composition on strength and power in male and female students. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 13(1): 150.
  7. Brocherie, F., Girard, O., Forchino, F., Al Haddad, H., Dos Santos, G.A., Millet, G.P. (2014). Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(13): 1243–1254.
  8. Carter, J., Ackland, T., Kerr, D., Stapff, A. (2005). Somatotype and size of elite female basketball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(10): 1057–1063.
  9. Carter, J.E.L., Heath, B.H. (1990). Somatotyping: development and applications. Cambridge university press.
  10. Damayanti, C., Adriani, M. (2021). Correlation between percentage of body fat with speed and cardiorespiratory endurance among futsal athletes in Surabaya. Media Gizi Indonesia, 16(1): 53-61.
  11. Dessalew, G.W., Woldeyes, D.H., & Abegaz, B. A. (2019). The Relationship Between Anthropometric Variables and Race Performance. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 10: 209–216.
  12. Franchini, E., Nunes, A.V., Moraes, J.M., Del Vecchio, F.B. (2007). Physical Fitness and Anthropometrical Profile of the Brazilian Male Judo Team. Journal of Physiological anthropology, 26(2): 59–67.
  13. Lozovina, V., Lozovina, M. (2008). Morphological optimisation, overlap zones and secular trend in selection pressures. Acta Kinesiologica, 2(1), 33-41.
  14. Malousaris, G.G., Bergeles, N.K., Barzouka, K.G., Bayios, I.A., Nassis, G.P., Koskolou, M.D. (2008). Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(3), 337–344.
  15. Massuça, L.M., Fragoso, I. (2011). Study of portuguese handball players of different playing status. A morphological and biosocial. Biology of Sport, 28(1), 37–44.
  16. Norton, K. (1996). Anthropometrica. A Textbook of Body Measurement for Sports and Health Courses.
  17. Perez-Gomez, J., Rodriguez, G.V., Ara, I., Olmedillas, H., Chavarren, J., González-Henriquez, J.J., Dorado, C. Calbet, J.A. (2008). Role of muscle mass on sprint performance: gender differences?. European journal of applied physiology, 102: 685-694.
  18. Pullinger, S.A., Bradley, P.S., Causer, J., Ford, P.R., Newlove, A., Patel, K., Reid, K., Robertson, C.M., Burniston, J.G., Doran, D.A., Waterhouse, J.M., Edwards, B.J. (2019a). Football-induced fatigue in hypoxia impairs repeated sprint ability and perceptual-cognitive skills. Science and Medicine in Football, 3(3): 221-230. https://doi:10.1080/24733938.2019.1591633
  19. Pullinger, S.A., Varamenti, E., Nikolovski, Z., Elgingo, M., Cardinale, M. (2019b). Seasonal Changes in Performance Related Characteristics and Biochemical Marker Variability of Adolescent Table Tennis Players. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(1): e67278.
  20. Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K., Sterkowicz, S., Żarów, R. (2011). Somatotype, Body Composition and Proportionality in Polish Top Greco-Roman Wrestlers. Journal of Human Kinetics, 28: 141–154.
  21. Thorland, W.G., Johnson, G.O., Fagot, T.G., Tharp, G.D., Hammer, R.W. (1981). Body composition and somatotype characteristics of junior Olympic athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 13(5): 332–338.
  22. Thorstensson, A., Larsson, L., Tesch, P., Karlsson, J. (1977). Muscle strength and fiber composition in athletes and sedentary men. Medicine and Science in Sports, 9(1): 26–30.
  23. Vernillo, G., Schena, F., Berardelli, C., Rosa, G., Galvani, C., Maggioni, M., Agnello, L., La Torre, A. (2013). Anthropometric characteristics of top-class Kenyan marathon runners. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 53(4): 403–408.
  24. Viviani, F. (1994). The somatotype of medium class Italian basketball players. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 34(1): 70–75.
  25. Weyand, P.G., Sternlight, D.B., Bellizzi, M.J., Wright, S. (2000). Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. Journal of Applied Physiology 89: 1991-1999.
  26. Zanini, D., Kuipers, A., Somensi, I.V., Pasqualotto, J.F., Quevedo, J.D.G., Teo, J.C., Antes, D.L., (2020). Relationship between Body Composition and Physical Capacities in Junior Soccer Players. Rev. Bras. Cineantropometria Desempenho Hum. 22: 1–7.