Descriptive and Correlative Analysis of Anthropometric, Physiological and Nutritional Characteristics in University Students from Morelia, Mexico

Erasto Hernández-Calderón
Investigación y Colegiado Docente, Universidad Latina de América, Morelia, México.
África Itzu Luna Rueda
Licenciatura en Nutrición, Universidad Latina de América, Morelia, México
Juan Carlos de la Cruz Castillo Pinea
Licenciatura en Nutrición, Universidad Latina de América, Morelia, México
Olga Ivalú Larios Togo
Investigación y Colegiado Docente, Universidad Latina de América, Morelia, México.
Daniela Lara y Sánchez
Licenciatura en Nutrición, Universidad Latina de América, Morelia, México

Published 31-12-2022


  • Anthropometry,
  • Body Composition,
  • Food Diversity,
  • Physical Activity,
  • University Students

How to Cite

Hernández-Calderón, E., Luna Rueda, África I., de la Cruz Castillo Pinea, J. C. ., Larios Togo, O. I. ., & Lara y Sánchez, D. . (2022). Descriptive and Correlative Analysis of Anthropometric, Physiological and Nutritional Characteristics in University Students from Morelia, Mexico. International Journal of Kinanthropometry, 2(2), 36–51.



Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of mortality in the world. Among NCD varieties, obesity is a public health problem around the world, but it is especially important in poor or developing countries. The aim of this study is to explore the body composition, physical activity and food diversity in university students from Morelia, Mexico. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted with 422 students of university level. We used bioimpedance and anthropometry to determine the body composition of the students. The physical activity was analyzed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while the food diversity was assessed by the guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity of the Food and Agriculture Organization. Results: A matrix of 16 anthropometric variables was reduced to three principal components with a variance accumulate of 88.04% to women and 78.9% to men. We were able to separate groups of women based on anthropometric variables. In men, the percentage of muscle is the variable that most influences the separation of groups. The physical activity ranges from moderate to high; on average it was 5028.4 and 4449.4 MET-minutes/week for men and women respectively. A high food diversity and equitability of consumption was found, the socioeconomic level of the students does not allow inferring food insecurity. In men we found more associated variables than in women and we found no relationship with dietary diversity. We found statistically significant relationships between chronological age and metabolic age in both sexes, but we did not find a relationship between actual weight and ideal weight. Conclusion: In conclusion, we describe the body composition, anthropometry, physical activity and food diversity of university students.


  1. Ali, Y.S., Daamen, N., Jacob, G., Jordan, J., Shannon, J.R., Biaggioni, I., Robertson, D. (2000). Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women. Obstetrical & gynecological survey, 55(4): 251-259.
  2. Aparicio, M., Estrada, L.A., Fernández, C., Hernández, R.M.(2004). Manual de antropometría. Departamento de Nutrición Aplicada y Educación Nutricional. Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán. México.
  3. Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American psychologist, 55(5): 469-480.
  4. Arria, A.M., Caldeira, K.M., O’Grady, K.E., Vincent, K.B., Fitzelle, D.B., Johnson, E.P., Wish, E.D. (2008). Drug exposure opportunities and use patterns among college students: Results of a longitudinal prospective cohort study. Substance abuse, 29(4): 19-38.
  5. Asociacion Mexicana De Agencias de Inteligencia de Mercado y Opinión (2019). NSE AMAI Niveles Socioeconómicos.
  6. Asociación Mexicana de Agencias de Inteligencia de Mercados (2018). NSE AMAI Questionnaires.
  7. Azadbakht L., Esmaillzadeh A. (2011). Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal adiposity among Iranian female youth. Public health nutrition, 14(1): 62-69.
  8. Azadbakht, L., Esmaillzadeh, A. (2012). Dietary energy density is favorably associated with dietary diversity score among female university students in Isfahan. Nutrition, 28(10), 991-995.
  9. Barquera, S., Hernández-Barrera, L., Trejo-Valdivia, B., Shamah, T., Campos-Nonato, I., Rivera-Dommarco, J. (2020). Obesidad en México, prevalencia y tendencias en adultos. Ensanut 2018-19. Salud Pública de México, 62(6).
  10. Bhurosy, T., Jeewon, R. (2014). Overweight and obesity epidemic in developing countries: a problem with diet, physical activity, or socioeconomic status?. The Scientific World Journal, 2014.
  11. Bray, S.R., Born, H.A. (2004). Physical activity and transition to university: Implications for health and psychological well-being. American Journal of College Health, 52(4): 181-188.
  12. Bull, F.C., Bauman, A.E. (2011). Physical inactivity: the “Cinderella” risk factor for noncommunicable disease prevention. Journal of health communication, 16(sup2): 13-26.
  13. Chomistek, A.K., Cook, N.R., Flint, A.J., Rimm, E.B. (2012). Vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity and risk of major chronic disease in men. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 44(10): 1898-1905.
  14. Drescher, L.S., Thiele, S., Mensink, G.B. (2007). A new index to measure healthy food diversity better reflects a healthy diet than traditional measures. The Journal of nutrition, 137(3): 647-651.
  15. Fernandez, E., D’Avanzo B., Negri E., Franceschi S., La Vecchia C. (1996). Diet diversity and the risk of colorectal cancer in northern Italy. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 5(6): 433-436.
  16. Ferrucci, L., Giallauria, F., Guralnik, J.M. (2008). Epidemiology of aging. Radiologic Clinics of North America, 46(4): 643-652.
  17. Frankenfield, D.C., Rowe, W.A., Cooney, R.N., Smith, J.S., Becker, D. (2001). Limits of body mass index to detect obesity and predict body composition. Nutrition, 17(1), 26-30.
  18. Gall, T. L., Evans, D. R., Bellerose, S. (2000). Transition to first-year university: Patterns of change in adjustment across life domains and time. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(4), 544-567.
  19. Ganzeboom, K.S., Colman, N., Reitsma J.B., Shen, W.K., Wieling, W. (2003). Prevalence and triggers of syncope in medical students. American Journal of Cardiology, 91(8): 1006-1008.
  20. Gauch, H.G., Gauch, Jr, H.G. (1982). Multivariate analysis in community ecology (No. 1). Cambridge University Press.
  21. González Sandoval, C.E., Díaz Burke, Y., Mendizabal-Ruiz, A.P., Medina Díaz, E., Morales, J. A. (2014). Prevalencia de obesidad y perfil lipídico alterado en jóvenes universitarios. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 29(2): 315-321.
  22. Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T., Ryan, P.D. (2001). Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1): 1-9.
  23. Haq, I.U., Mariyam, Z., Zeb, F., Jiang, P., Wu, X., Shah, J., Li, M. (2020). Identification of Body Composition, Dietary Patterns and Its Associated Factors in Medical University Students in China. Ecology of food and nutrition, 59(1): 65-78.
  24. Hasan-Ghomi, M., Mirmiran, P., Amiri, Z., Asghari, G., Sadeghian, S., Sarbazi, N., Azizi, F. (2012). The association of food security and dietary variety in subjects aged over 40 in district 13 of Tehran. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 14(4): 360-367.
  25. Henneberg, M., & Ulijaszek, S. J. (2010). Body frame dimensions are related to obesity and fatness: lean trunk size, skinfolds, and body mass index. American Journal of Human Biology, 22(1): 83-91.
  26. Hoffman, D.J. (2004). Upper limits in developing countries: warning against too much in lands of too little. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23(sup6), 610S-615S.
  27. Hollenberg, N.K., Martinez, G., McCullough, M., Meinking, T., Passan, D., Preston, M., Vicaria-Clement, M. (1997). Aging, acculturation, salt intake, and hypertension in the Kuna of Panama. Hypertension, 29(1): 171-176.
  28. Hutton, D. (2008). Older people in emergencies: considerations for action and policy development. World Health Organization.
  29. INEGI (2018). National Health and Nutrition Survey. INEGI.
  30. IPAQ (2002). International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Long Version Self-Managed Format. Recovery from
  31. Jayawardena R., Byrne N. M., Soares M. J., Katulanda P., Yadav B., Hills A. P. (2013). High dietary diversity is associated with obesity in Sri Lankan adults: an evaluation of three dietary scores. BMC public health, 13(1), 314.
  32. Joyner, M.J., Wallin, B.G., Charkoudian N. (2016). Sex differences and blood pressure regulation in humans. Experimental physiology, 101(3): 349-355.
  33. Kant, A.K., Schatzkin, A., Harris, T.B., Ziegler, R.G., Block, G. (1993). Dietary diversity and subsequent mortality in the first national health and nutrition examination survey epidemiologic follow-up study. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 57(3): 434-440.
  34. Katanoda, K., Kim H.S., Matsumura, Y. (2006). New Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity (QUANTIDD) and its annual changes in the Japanese. Nutrition, 22(3): 283-287.
  35. Kennedy, G., Ballard, T., & Dop, M. C. (2013). Guía para medir la diversidad alimentaria a nivel individual y del hogar. Roma: División de Nutrición y Protección del Consumidor, Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura.
  36. Kimura Y., Okumiya K., Sakamoto R., Ishine M., Wada T., Kosaka Y., Wada C., Ishimoto Y., Hirosaki M., Kasahara Y., Konno A., Chen W., Otsuka K., Fujisawa M., Nakatsuka M., Nakashima M., Wang H., Dai, Q., Yang, A., Gao J., Li, Z., Qiao, H., Zhang, Y., Ge, R.L., Matsubayashi K. (2009). Comprehensive geriatric assessment of elderly highlanders in Qinghai, China IV: comparison of food diversity and its relation to health of Han and Tibetan elderly. Geriatrics & gerontology international, 9(4): 359-365.
  37. Kyle, U.G., Bosaeus, I., De, Lorenzo, A.D., Deurenberg P., Elia M., Gómez J. M., Pichard C. (2004). Bioelectrical impedance analysis-part II: utilization in clinical practice. Clinical nutrition, 23(6): 1430-1453.
  38. La Vecchia, C., Muñoz S.E., Braga C., Fernandez E., Decarli A. (1997). Diet diversity and gastric cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 72(2), 255-257.;2-Q
  39. Meléndez, M., Aboites, L. (2015). Para una historia del cambio alimentario en México durante el siglo XX. El arribo del gas y la electricidad a la cocina [En línea]. México: Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, AC, Sonora, México.
  40. Michels, K.B., Wolk, A. (2002). A prospective study of variety of healthy foods and mortality in women. International journal of epidemiology, 31(4), 847-854.
  41. Mokaddem, F. (2016). BMI and FFMI do not seem universally applicable in nutritional assessment and the usefulness of SGA and functional evaluation should not be overlooked. Clinical Nutrition, 35(1): 236.
  42. Morales-Ruán M.D.C., Valenzuela-Bravo, D.G., Jiménez-Aguilar, A., Cuevas-Nasu, L., Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, I., Shamah-Levy T. (2018). Diversidad de la dieta en mujeres que habitan en inseguridad alimentaria en México, beneficiarias de un programa de ayuda alimentaria. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 35(2), 408-415.
  43. National Hospital Discharge Survey (2010). National hospital discharge survey. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
  44. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-043-SSA2-2005. (2006). Servicios básicos de salud: Promoción y educación para la salud en materia alimentaria. Criterios para brindar orientación.
  45. Okorodudu, D.O., Jumean, M.F., Montori, V.M., Romero-Corral, A., Somers, V.K., Erwin, P.J., & Lopez-Jimenez, F. (2010). Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify obesity as defined by body adiposity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of obesity, 34(5), 791-799.
  46. Oldewage-Theron W.H., Egal, A.A. (2014). A cross-sectional baseline survey investigating the relationship between dietary diversity and cardiovascular risk factors in women from the Vaal Region, South Africa. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 4(1): 50.
  47. Pausova, Z., Jomphe, M., Houde, L., Vezina, H., Orlov, S.N., Gossard, F., Hamet, P. (2002). A genealogical study of essential hypertension with and without obesity in French Canadians. Obesity research, 10(6): 463-470.
  48. Peeters, G., Beard, J.R., Deeg, D.J., Tooth, L.R., Brown, W.J., Dobson, A.J. (2019). Longitudinal associations between lifestyle, socio-economic position and physical functioning in women at different life stages. European journal of ageing, 16(2): 167-179.
  49. Peterson, C.M., Thomas, D.M., Blackburn, G.L., & Heymsfield, S.B. (2016). Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 103(5): 1197-1203.
  50. Piercy, K.L., Troiano, R.P., Ballard, R.M., Carlson, S.A., Fulton, J.E., Galuska, D.A., Olson, R.D. (2018). The physical activity guidelines for Americans. Jama, 320(19): 2020-2028.
  51. Portao, J., Bescós, R., Irurtia, A., Cacciatori, E., Vallejo, L. (2009). Valoración de la grasa corporal en jóvenes físicamente activos: antropometría vs bioimpedancia. Nutrición hospitalaria, 24(5): 529-534.
  52. Rahmani, J., Dorosty Motlagh, A.R. (2017). Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal obesity among Tehranian young boy students. The Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 21(4): 37-28.
  53. Rodríguez-Ramírez, S., Gaona-Pineda, E.B., Martínez-Tapia, B., Arango-Angarita, A., Kim-Herrera, E.Y., Valdez-Sánchez, A., Shamah-Levy, T., Ramírez-Silva, I. (2020). Consumo de grupos de alimentos y su asociación con características sociodemográficas en población mexicana. Ensanut 2018-19. salud pública de méxico, 62(6): 693-703.
  54. Ruano Nieto, C.I., Melo Pérez, J.D., Mogrovejo Freire, L., Paula Morales, K.R.D., Espinoza Romero, C.V. (2015). Prevalencia de síndrome metabólico y factores de riesgo asociados en jóvenes universitarios ecuatorianos. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 31(4): 1574-1581.
  55. Salehi-Abargouei A., Akbari F., Bellissimo N., Azadbakht L. (2016). Dietary diversity score and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. European journal of clinical nutrition, 70(1): 1-9.
  56. SPSS, I. (2013). IBM SPSS statistics for windows. Armonk, New York.
  57. Thorne-Lyman, A.L., Valpiani, N., Sun, K., Semba, R.D., Klotz, C.L., Kraemer, K., Bloem, M.W. (2010). Household dietary diversity and food expenditures are closely linked in rural Bangladesh, increasing the risk of malnutrition due to the financial crisis. The Journal of nutrition, 140(1): 182S-188S.
  58. Trujillo-Hernández, B., Vásquez, C., Almanza-Silva, J.R., Jaramillo-Virgen, M. E., Mellin-Landa, T. E., Valle-Figueroa, O. B., Newton-Sánchez, O. (2010). Frecuencia y factores de riesgo asociados a sobrepeso y obesidad en universitarios de Colima, México. Revista de salud pública, 12: 197-207.
  59. Vargas-Zárate, M., Becerra-Bulla, F., Prieto-Suárez, E. (2008). Anthropometric evaluation of university students in Bogotá, Colombia. Revista de Salud Pública, 10(3): 433-442.
  60. Verney, J., Metz, L., Chaplais, E., Cardenoux, C., Pereira, B., Thivel, D. (2016). Bioelectrical impedance is an accurate method to assess body composition in obese but not severely obese adolescents. Nutrition Research, 36(7): 663-670.
  61. Wang, Y., Wang, Q.J. (2004). The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among US adults according to the new joint national committee guidelines: new challenges of the old problem. Archives of internal medicine, 164(19): 2126-2134.
  62. Whittaker, R.H. (1977). 197 5. Communities and ecosystems. MacMillanCo, Whittaker Communities and ecosystems1971. London
  63. Willett, W., Rockström, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S., .Jonell, M. (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. The Lancet, 393(10170), 447-492.
  64. Womersley J., Durnin J. V. G. A. (1977). A comparison of the skinfold method with extent of ‘overweight’and various weight-height relationships in the assessment of obesity. British journal of nutrition, 38(2): 271-284. DOI:
  65. World Healt Organization (2021). Physical activity. World Healt Organization.
  66. World Health Organization. (2015). World report on ageing and health. World Health Organization.
  67. World Health Organization. (2019). Global action plan on physical activity 2018-2030: more active people for a healthier world. World Health Organization.
  68. World Health Organization. (2021). The top 10 causes of death. World Health Organization.
  69. Yeon, J.Y., Hong, S.H., Bae, Y.J. (2012). A study on nutritional status and dietary quality of university students by body image. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition, 17(5): 543-554.